Humans have two kidneys, situated on either side of the body, below the rib cage. These are bean-shaped and roughly the size of a human fist. Kidney perform a number of critical functions which are essential for survival of humans.
Some of its major functions can be summed up as below:
- Filter the waste material from the good one.
- Expel the waste material as urine.
- Control water levels in body.
- Control mineral levels in body.
- Produce Vitamin D.
- Produce Red Blood Cells.
- Produce hormones which help in regulating the blood pressure.
Any problem arising in kidney has many symptoms which can be detected. These symptoms could be inappropriate flow of urine, burning sensation in urine, frequent urination urges, high blood pressure and swelling in hands or feet. Let us make this clear that these symptoms do not necessarily mean that the problem is due to kidney problem and there could be other problems as well. But, these symptoms do show that there is a need for further diagnostic tests to be conducted. This necessitates kidney function tests in a lab.
For kidney function tests, there is a need to provide the samples of blood and urine. Besides, there could be a need to conduct the uriflow test. The tests conducted are serum creatinine test, blood urea nitrogen and estimated glomerular filtration rate. These tests are collectively called Kidney Function Tests (or, KFT).
Based on these tests, the doctor determines exact nature of problem and provides the treatment.